CO2 Now

Discovery of Atmospheric CO2 Levels PDF Print E-mail


Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles David Keeling

Charles David Keeling (SIO Archives)Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth is a 1998 autobiographical account of Dave Keeling's discovery of background levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.  It describes events that led to this discovery, and events that followed.  It is a story of perserverence in the face of scientific and institutional challenges to push open the door of understanding of the rising levels of atmospheric CO2.  A review in the scientific Journal, Nature, declares that Keeling's article "should be compulsory reading for politicians and science administrators."  The reviewer adds that "idealistic young scientists, as yet unscarred, should read it and take note: courage and perseverance are required."

The Scripps Institution of Oceanography has reprinted the paper with the permission of the Annual Review of Energy and the Environment.  Click here for more citations and republication information.  Click here to download the paper directly from the Scripps website.

Discovery of Global Warming PDF Print E-mail


The Discovery of Global Warming (AbleStock photo)

The Discovery of Global Warming is both a book and a series of online articles.  Both are kept up to date by climate science historian Dr. Spencer Weart.  

The highly-acclaimed book tells the history of climate science, and the discovery of climate change, as a concise, single story.  As a retired physicist, Spencer Weart supplements the information in the book with ongoing updates to a series of inter-linked articles on the website of the American Institute of Physics (AIP). 

To help people who want to know more about the historical aspects of global warming and climate change, a list of links to Spencer Weart’s articles is made available at 

 The following links take you from to the Discover Global Warming section of the AIP website.
Click "read more" to see the full list of links. 

Getting Started

Summary of the history of climate change science [pdf]

Search all of Spencer Weart’s online articles